Cell Structure and Cell Function

2.1 Cell Structure and Cell Function
Cell organelles Functions
Plasma membrane

Regulates the movement of substances across the cell

Separates the contents of the cell from the external environment

Cell wall

Maintains the shape of plant cells

Protects the plant cells from burst

Provides strength and support to the plant cell


Acts as a medium for biochemical reactions of most living processes in the cell


Carries genetic information in the form of DNA


Stores nutrients, wastes and metabolic by-product


Synthesises proteins


Synthesises ATP

Site of cellular respiration

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Transports proteins made by the ribosomes throughout the cell

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesises lipids and carries detoxification of drugs

Golgi apparatus

Modifies, transports, sort and package the proteins and carbohydrates


Digests old and worn organelles

Breakdown complex organic molecules


Form spindle fibres during cell division


Site of photosynthesis


Similarities between plant cell and animal cell:

  • Both cells contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes.

Differences between plant cell and animal cell:

Plant Cells Animal Cells

Has a fixed shape

Does not have a fixed shape

Has a cell wall

Does not have a cell wall

Has chloroplasts

Does not have a chloroplasts

Has a large vacuole

No vacuole

Stores carbohydrates in the form of starch

Stores carbohydrates in the form of glycogen

Does not have a centriole

Has centrioles