Communication in Biology

1.3  Communication in Biology
Communication in biology consists of table, graph and biological drawings


  1. Used to record and present the data
  2. Used to organize data systematically and make the data comparison become easy
  3. The headings in the table consist of the manipulated variable and the responding variable with the respective unit
  4. The manipulated variable is placed in the column on the left side
  5. The responding variable is placed in the column on the right side


  1. To shows the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable
  2. There are several types of graphs such as line graphs, bar charts and histograms

Method to draw graphs:

Line graph

  1. The responding variable is represented by the vertical axis (y-axis) and the manipulated variable is represented by the horizontal axis (x-axis)
  2.  The scaling on the axis must be uniform
  3. Mark the points with an appropriate symbol such as ‘x’
  4.  Title the graph: “Graph (responding variable) versus (manipulated variable)”

Bar graph

  1. Draw two axes, the horizontal axis/X to represent the manipulated variable and the vertical axis/Y to represent the responding variable
  2. Each width of the bar needs to be uniform
  3. The bar height depends on the frequency of the data
  4. Bar charts are used to make comparisons between two or more items at a time


  1. Draw two axes where the horizontal axis/X represents the data that has been divided into groups according to the appropriate range while the vertical axis/Y shows the frequency
  2. Insert labels and units on the axes
  3. The size or width of the bars must be the same for all class gap with no spacing between the bars

Biological drawings

  1. Give an accurate representation of an observed specimen

Characteristics of biological drawings:

  1.  Large and accurate; use a sharp pencil and not a colour pencil or pen
  2. Not shaded artistically
  3. Lines drawn must be clear, clean and continuous
  4. Do not use a ruler to draw the outline of a specimen
  5. Drawings must be labelled
  6. Label lines must point to the correct structure, no arrowheads, must be straight and not cross each other
  7. Drawings must have titles
  8. Each structure in the drawing must be placed in the correct position, and its size should be proportionate to the rest of the structures
  9. Consists of plan drawing and detailed drawing
  10. Must include the magnification factor: \(\dfrac{\text{The length of drawing in cm}}{\text{The length of specimen in cm}}\)


  1. The plane refers to a flat surface of shadow passing through the body

Consists of:

  1. sagittal plane (divides the body into right and left parts)
  2. frontal plane (divides the body into frontal and rear parts)
  3. horizontal plane (divides the body into upper and lower parts)


Cross section divides the structure into upper and lower portions horizontally while longitudinal section divides the structure into left and right portions


Direction consists of anterior, ventral, posterior, dorsal, superior, inferior and lateral

  1. Anterior: towards the front of the body
  2. Ventral: towards the lower part of the body
  3. Posterior: towards the back part of the body
  4. Dorsal: towards the upper part of the body
  5. Superior: the part that is above all other parts or towards the head
  6. Inferior: situated below other parts or towards the feet
  7. Lateral: far from the midline or at the side of the body