Food Relationship Among Living Things

3.3  Food Relationship Among Living Things
  • Living things in a habitat depends on each other for food.
  • The sun is the main resource in the ecosystem, followed by producers and consumers.
Food chain
  • The food chain is the food relationship between living things.
  • Arrow -> means “eaten by”.
  • For example: Fruits -> Squirrels -> Snakes -> Eagles
Producer and consumer
  • The sun is the main source of energy because it supplies sunlight to plants.
  • Plants are known as producers, because plants can make their own food through the process of photosynthesis.
  • Animals that eat plants or other animals are known as consumers, because they get their energy source from other parties.
  • Consumers get energy from food eaten whether it is fruits or other animals. This relationship is known as the energy transfer.
  • The -> arrow in a food chain also indicates the flow of energy transfer
  • Based on the type of food eaten, animals can be classified into 3 groups:
  1. Herbivore - Animal that eat plants.
  2. Carnivore - Animal that eat other animals.
  3. Omnivore - Animal that eats both plants and other animals.
Food web
  • A food web is a combination of several food chains in a habitat.
  • In one habitat, there are several food chains that exist.
  • Based on some of these food chains, we can combine them to form a food chain.

Effects of population change
  • A population is a group of living things or species found in a habitat
  • Population change indicates a change in the number of species in the habitat
  • Population changes in the food/web chain have an impact on other living things and will disrupt the entire ecosystem
  • In the event of a population change such as death in the food web, consumers will seek food in other habitats, or move to ensure the survival of their species
  • Among the reasons for changes in living populations are
  1. Unplanned and extreme forest exploration
  2. Forest fire
  3. Illegal hunting activities
  4. Extreme weather changes
  5. The spread of a pandemic
  • If the number (population) of one animal changes, then the number (population) of other animals will also change (either increase/decrease).