Science Process Skills

  • Scientific skills are skills that are practiced while conducting experiments or investigations. Scientific skills consist of science process skills and manipulative skills
1.1  Science Process Skills
  • Science process skills allow someone to question something and seek answers systematically
  • There are 12 science process skills, namely 7 basic skills and 5 integrated skills.
Basic science process skills

7 basic science process skills include:

  1. Observing: Using the senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell, or touch to gather information about objects and phenomena
  2. Classify: Sort out and group objects or phenomena based on similar characteristics
  3. Measure and numbering: Make quantitative observations using numbers, standard tools or standardized tools.
  4. Making inferences: Making reasonable initial conclusions, which may or may not be true to explain an event or observation.
  5. Predicting: Making predictions about an event based on past observations and experiences or based on data.
  6. Communicate: Obtain, select, organize and present information or ideas in written, oral, table, graph, diagram or model form.
  7. Using space-time relationships: Describe changes such as location, direction, shape, size, volume, weight and mass over time
Integrated science process skills

5 integrated science process skills.

  1. Interpret data: Give a rational description of an object, event or pattern from the data collected.
  2. Operational definition: Give an interpretation of a concept or situation by stating things done and observed.
  3. Controlling variables: Identify manipulated variables (what is changed), responding variables (what is observed/measured) and constant variables (what is fixed/constant throughout the experiment).
  4. Make a hypothesis: Make a general statement about the relationship between variables that are opinionated to be true to explain a thing or event. This statement can be tested to determine its validity.
  5. Experimenting: Planning and conducting an investigation to test a hypothesis, collecting data, interpreting data, obtaining conclusions from the investigation.
  • The experiment should follow the following steps (checklist) so that the problem statement can be solved.
  • Experiment checklist:
  1. Identifying problems
  2. Making hypothesis
  3. Design an experiment – controlling variables, determine the required equipment and materials, determine steps of conducting experiments, determine methods of data collection, determine methods of data analysis
  4. Conducting experiment – conduct the experiment according to the planned steps
  5. Collect the data
  6. Analyze the data
  7. Interpret the data
  8. Draw conclusions – State the conclusions obtained from the experiments conducted
  9. Make a report
1.2  Manipulative Skills
  • Science manipulative skills need to be practiced during an experiment or investigation.
  • There are 5 manipulative skills:
  1. Use and handle equipment and materials correctly
  2. Accurately draw specimens, equipment and science materials.
  3. Handle specimens correctly and carefully
  4. Store equipment and materials properly and safely
  5. Clean equipment the right way.
  • Science manipulative skills are important so that:
  1. The results of the investigation obtained are clear and accurate.
  2. Management of tools and materials becomes more systematic.