Survival of Plant Species

Plants have special characteristics for survival and protection from the enemies. These special features also help plants to adapt to the climate of their surroundings.
4.1  Survival of Plant Species
  • Plants have special characteristics to maintain the survival of their species in two situations:
  1. Protect themselves from the enemies
  2. Adaptation to climate and seasonal changes
Protection from the enemies
  • The special features of plants for protection are:
  1. sharp thorns
  2. fine hairs
  3. produce latex
  4. poisonous
  5. release stench
Special characteristic Description Example
Sharp thorns Its sharp thorns will injure animals that try to eat it
  • Durian
  • Cactus

Fine hairs

Fine hairs cause itchiness to the enemy
  • Bamboo
  • Sugarcane

Produce latex

The sticky latex avoids animals from eating it
  • Jackfruit
  • Papaya


Poison causes his enemies to get sick or die when eaten
  • Pong-pong
  • Mushroom

Release stench

Emits an unpleasant odor to prevent animals from eating it
  • Rafflesia
  • Lantana camara
Adaptation to climate and season
  • The special characteristics of plants to adapt to climate and seasonal changes are:
  1. Flexible stems
  2. Pinnacle leaves
  3. Needle-shaped leaves
  4. Thorns
  5. Water storing stem
  6. Long roots
  7. Fine hairs
  8. Folding of leaves
  9. Waxy leaves
  10. Shedding of leaves
  11. Thick skins
  • During high wind season:
  1. Flexible stems and pinnacle leaves on coconut trees can reduce wind resistance
  2. Flexible stems and twigs as well as needle-shaped leaves prevent it from toppling down during strong wind for ru trees
  • During summer and dry seasons:
  1. Leaves that are modified into thorns on a cactus prevent it from losing water. Its stems that can store water and its long roots can move deep into the soil to absorb water
  2. The fine hairy stems and leaves on tomato plants can prevent them from losing water during hot weather
  3. The turmeric tree fold its leaves during hot weather to prevent water loss
  4. The yam tree has waxy leaves to prevent too much water loss
  5. Rubber trees shed their leaves during hot weather and dry seasons to avoid excessive water loss
  • Cold climate:
  1. Maple trees have thick bark on the trunk to protect themselves in cold climates
  2. Pine trees have needle-shaped leaves and thick bark to survive in cold climates.
  3. The thick bark on the stems of plants can protect the water absorbed by the plants from freezing due to extreme cold climates.