The Adaptation In The Respiratory System

2.4  The Adaptation In The Respiratory System



The diversity of adaptations in the respiratory systems of animals differs from those of humans

The variety of adaptations in the respiratory system of animals:

Animals, organ and features


- Gills


- Consists of fine and numerous filaments or rapid gas permeation

- Filaments have many blood capillaries for effiecient gas exchange


- Trachea


- Consists of a branched tube system

- The tip of the tracheolus is thin-walled and moist for the gas to dissolve directly into the cell

- A large number of tracheols and a large surface area cause gas exchange by brief diffusion


- Outer skin and lungs


- The outer skin of amphibians is thin and permeable for easy and fast gas permeation

- Always moist because it is covered with mucus that dissolves respiratory gases

- Many blood capillaries transport respiratory gases to body cells



The adaptation of the human respiratory system in different situations:

  • The human respiratory system is able to adapt to the needs such as being at the top of a high mountain where the atmospheric pressure is low and difficulty breathing

  • Respiratory rates vary according to different situations such as on the ocean floor where high pressure and difficulty breathing requires an oxygen tank

  • Regular exercise can strengthen the heart and respiratory system to function efficiently such as running or swimming athletes who have an increased cellular respiration rate and heart rate

  • A healthy lifestyle such as not smoking is also important to keep the respiratory system functioning properly

 The anemia and sickle cell anemia:


Patients with anemia

Patients with sickle cell anemia

- Suffering from iron mineral deficiency due to lack of haemoglobin

- Lack of oxygen is caused by a lack of haemoglobin

- Becomes pale, lacks energy, and faints easily

- Sickle-shaped blood cells

- The surface area is small and less than normal haemoglobin

- Lack of oxygen is transported to the body’s cells causing paleness and lack of energy