The Health of the Human Respiratory System

2.3  The Health of the Human Respiratory System



There are various substances in the air that can cause damage to the human respiratory system

The diseases of the human respiratory system:

Disease and cause




- Cigarette smoke

- Exposed to chemicals

- Dust

- The cell wall of the alveoli is damaged

- The surface area of ​​the alveoli is reduced

- Gas exchange is less efficient

Difficulty breathing


Infection by viruses or bacteria

Inflamed bronchial tubes with abundant mucus production

- Persistent cough

- Difficulty breathing

- Pain in the chest

- Sore throat

Lung cancer

- Cigarette smoke

- Exposed to asbestos

- Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing)

- Uncontrolled cell division

- Spreads to every organ of the body such as the liver and bones

- Persistent cough

- Difficulty breathing

- Coughing blood


Substances that cause allergies such as dust and pollen

- The bronchial tubes become inflamed, swollen and narrow

- It is difficult for air to enter and exit through the lungs

- Cough

- Difficulty breathing

The hazardous substances and effects on the respiratory system:

Hazardous substances in polluted air

Effects on the respiratory system

Sulphur dioxide

Irritates the throat and damages lung tissue

Nitrogen dioxide

Irritates the throat and causes difficulty breathing


Settled on the alveoli and respiratory tract, causing difficulty breathing

Carbon monoxide

Competing with oxygen to combine with hemoglobin results in less oxygen content in the blood

Bacteria and viruses

Causes colds, coughs and pneumonia


Asbestos fumes are carcinogenic substances that cause lung cancer


Stimulates the respiratory tract of asthmatics and can cause asthma attacks

Cigarette smoke

Tar is a carcinogenic substance that causes lung cancer