Interaction among animals

This chapter describes the interactions that take place between living things, which are animals and plants. Living things that live in the same habitat interact with each other for their own survival. Stable ecosystems are formed through the interaction between them and with their surroundings.  
4.1  Interaction among animals
Animals interact with each other to obtain basic necessities for survival. These animals are from the same and also different species.  
  Interaction between animals means the relationship between the animals that are interdependent on each other  
  Animals Living in Groups  
Advantages Disadvantages
  • Cooperate to build their nest
  • Cooperate to get food
  • Ensure the safety of the group members
  • Disease outbreak caused by viruses is easy to spread to the same species in the group
  • Great competition for foods and mates
  • The weak animal in a big group have difficulty to save itself when attacked by its predator
Animals Living in Solitary
Advantages Disadvantages
  • Do not need to compete to get food, water, shelter and mates
  • Do not hunt for food with each other or with other animals
  • Takes a long time to get food
  • Hard to find their mates in a habitat that is in a wide area


Factors of Competition Among Intraspecies Animals and Interspecies Animals
Intraspecies Interspecies
  1. Foods
  2. Water
  3. Shelter
  4. Mating
  1. Foods
  2. Water
  3. Territory


  • Symbiosis is the relationship between two or more animals that live closely together and mutually beneficial to each other
Groups of Symbiosis Explanation
  • Definition: Interaction that gives benefits to two types of animals
  • Examples: Buffalo and mynah, crocodile and bird
  • Definition: Interaction that benefits one species but the other species does not get any benefit or bad effect
  • Examples: Remora fish and shark, barnacles on the shell of a crab
  • Definition: Interaction that will cause only one species to benefit from the interaction and cause the other species to suffered
  • Example: Tick and deer, fleas and cat
4.2  Interaction among plants

Plants also interact to obtain their basic needs to keep alive. Usually small trees will ride on top of larger and taller trees to get water and sunlight.

  • Symbiosis among plants is the interactions between different plants in a habitat

Factors of competition among plants are:

  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Space
  • Nutrients
Types of Interaction Among Plants


  • Bird's nest fern
  • Dove orchid
  • Bird's nest fern and dove orchid live on other plants to get sunlight to carry out photosynthesis


  • Rafflesia
  • Mistletoe plant
  • Plant will latch on to a host plant to get nutrients and water. The host plant will lose food nutrition and it will cause the host plant to die