Main Processes of the Earth

9.3  Main Processes of the Earth
Main Processes


  • Occurs on Earth's surface
  • Examples: Weathering, erosion , mass and land depletion, transport and sedimentation


  • Process of rock fragmentation and decomposition or decay due to changes in temperature, rainwater, frosting and microorganisms.


  • Process of eroding of the Earth's surface moving agents (water, wind and waves)

Mass and land depletion

  • Involves soil movement from the top of a slope to below as a result of gravititonal force

Transport and sedimentation

  • Weathered and corroded materials are moved by agents. 
  • The materials will be sedimented whent the velocity of the agents decreases.


  • Caused by forces from within the Earth
  • Forms and changes the Earth's surac.
  • Examples: Mantle convection process, magma activity and Earth's crust movement (Plate Tectonics)

Mantle convection

  • High temperature in the mantle and the cire of Earth produces convection currents in the atmosphere layer.

Magma activity

  • Volcano is a vent on the Earth's crust that allows molten and hot magma to flow out thriugh it in a strong eruption.

Plate Tectonics

  • The Earth's crust is divided into several pieces of plates. 
  • These plates constantly move resulting in collision and divergence which produce various landforms in Earth and continental drifts.