Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

4.1  Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction is the process of producing new individuals from living organisms.


Sexual Asexual
Involves reproductive cells Does not involve reproductive cells

Occurs in:

  • humans
  • higher animal (mammal, bird, fish, reptile and amphibian)
  • flowering plant

Occurs in:

  • plants (onion, ginger, potato)
  • simple organism (Amoeba, Hydra, Paramecium)
Sexual Reproduction
Male Female
Carries male reproductive cell Carries female reproductive cell


Differences between internal and external fertilisation
Internal External 
The nucleus of the male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete inside the body of female parent Nucleus of male gamete fuses with nucleus of female gamete outside the body of female parent
Male parent releases sperm into the body of female parent Male parent releases sperm and female parent releases ovum. Occurs in the water.
Male gamete from the male reproductive organ will be released into the female organ which has the female gamete and fuses to form a zygote Male gamete usually swims towards the ovum and fuses with itt.

 Asexual Reproduction

Binary fusion
Binary fission is the division of a single parent cell into two daughter cells.
Example: Amoeba, Paramecium and bacteria


  • Budding is the process of forming a bud on the organism's body.
  • A bud starts off as a sweeling. Then, it develops and breaks off as a new young
Example: Hydra and yeast


Occurs from the ability of the fragments of some organisms to grow and develop into completely new indiciduals.
Examples: Flatworm, starfish and Planaria


Spore formation
  • Spore formation is the process of producing spores in the sporangium.
  • After the sporangium breaks, the tiny and light spores getscattered by the wind.
  • When they land on a moist place, they grow into new plants.


Vegetative reproduction
  • Vegetative reproduction is a method of producing newplants from avegetative part of a plant except the flower.
  • Example of vegetative parts are the roots, underground stems, runners, bulbs and leaves.
Examples: Carrot, strawberry, ginger, yam and potatoes

There are three types of vegetative reproduction:

Root - Roots of parent plant will grow into new plant Example: Carro, sweet potato
Stem - Stem of parent plant will row into new plant Example: Potato, onion, grass
Leaf - Leaves of parent plant will grow into new plants Example: Bryophyllum, Begonia

The importance of reproduction:

  • Increase the number of organisms of a species
  • Transfers the genetic information to the new generation