Medicines and Cosmetics

 

Definition of medicines
Chemicals used to help with the treatment or prevention of diseases
 
  • Medicines can be classified into traditional medicines and modern medicines.
  • Medicines are safe if taken properly.
  • Generally, medicines are for health use, but misuse or abuse of them can be harmful.
 

Traditional medicines

 
  • Obtained from herbal plants or animals and are not chemically processed.
  • Usually prepared by crushing certain parts of the plants using pestle and mortar and rubbing on sore limbs.
  • There are also certain parts of the plants or animals that are boiled to get the essence and to be consumed orally.
  • Nowadays, traditional medicines have evolved through processing, and marketed in the form of pills or capsules.
 
Definition of traditional medicines
Medicines obtained from plants and animals and are not chemically processed

 

Source of traditional medicine

Function

Ginseng root

Improves health

Tamarind

The juice from its fruit can relieve cough

Garlic

Lessen infection and high blood pressure

Cloves

Relieves toothache

Sirih leaves

Relieves eyesore

Turmeric

Decreases pimples

Papaya tree

The juice can relieve skin irritation

Hibiscus tree

The leaves can relieve headache and decreases hair loss

Coconut tree

The coconut water can reduce fever

Aloe vera

The juice can reduce the pain from burned skin

 

Modern medicines

 
  • Rapid developments in the field of medicine through new technologies, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering, have boost the production of modern medicine in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Most modern medicines produced today come from plants, microorganisms or synthetic chemicals.
  • Modern medicines are available in various forms, such as pills, capsules, powders and liquids.
 
Definition of modern medicines
Medicines manufactured industrially and distributed to consumers in this age
 

Types Modern medicines

 
Example Function
Analgesics
Aspirin and paracetamol Relieves pain in conscious state
Codeine Relieves pain, alleviates coughs and treats diarrhoea
Antimicrobials
Antibiotics Kills or retard bacterial growth
Antiseptics Applied externally on the skin to kill or stop the growth of microbes on the skin and mucous membranes
Disinfectants Destroys pathogens found on non-living objects
Psychotic drugs
  • Haloperidol
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Clozapine
Treatment for psychosis, a symptom of mental illness that causes patients to see, hear and believe something that is not real
Anti allergies
Antihistamines To relieve runny nose and itchiness
Corticosteroids
  • Betamethasone valerate
  • Prednisolone
  • Provide relief to the inflamed area.
  • Reduce swelling, redness, itchiness, allergic reactions, asthma and arthritis.

 

The side effect of medicines

Type of medicine

Example

Side effect

Antibiotic

Penicillin

  • Some might be allergic to penicillin.
  • Symptoms; itchiness, shortness of breath

Analgesic

Aspirin

  • Skin rash
  • Unconsciousness

Antipsychotic

Stimulant

  • Addiction
  • Abuse of amphetamine

Antipsychotic

  • Addiction

 

 

Cosmetic Substances

 

 

 
  • Cosmetics are substances or products used externally for cleaning, protect or beautify one's appearance.
  • Various types of materials are used as ingredients in the production of cosmetics so that the desired effect is obtained.
  • The basic ingredients for cosmetics usually consist of a combination of ingredients such as water, emulsifiers, thickeners, dyes, moisturizers and preservatives.
 
Cosmetic Basics Ingredients
Dye Gives colour to make cosmetics more attractive. Example: Iron (III) oxide.
Preservatives Prevent cosmetic damage. Examples: Parabens and formaldehyde.
Moisturizer Maintains the moisture of cosmetic ingredients. Examples: Glycerin and sodium lactate.
Fragrances Gives a pleasant aroma to cosmetic products. Example: Essential oils.
Thickener Thickens cosmetic products. Examples: Glycerin and xanthan gum.
Emulsifier Forms a homogeneous mixture between water and oil. Examples: Lecithin and stearic acid.
Water Solvents in the production of cosmetics.
 
  • The production and sale of cosmetics in Malaysia are subjected to the Drugs and Cosmetics Control Regulations 1984 to ensure the safety of all consumers.
 
Types of Cosmetics
Makeup cosmetics Used to beautify the face: Powder, lipstick, pencil eyebrows, blush, eye shadow, eyeliner and mascara
Cosmetic care Treatment on the body: Creams, skin moisturizers and face mask
Fragrances Fragrances: Deodorants and perfumes.
 
The Use of Cosmetics in Life
 
Pros of Homemade Cosmetics
  • Easily produced using natural ingredients
  • Safe and no harmful chemicals
  • Cheap cost

 

Cons of Commercial Cosmetics
  • Harmful side effects
  • There are hazardous chemicals included illegally
  • Excessively highlighted and misleading advertisement
 
Side effects of the use of banned chemicals in cosmetics
 
Prohibited chemicals Side effects
Mercury Skin irritation as well as fruit damage waist and nervous system if absorbed into the bloodstream
Hydroquinone Skin becomes hypersensitive and pigmentation reduction resulting in skin exposure to harmful UV rays
Betamethasone valerate Skin irritation and changes in skin pigmentation.
Tretinoin Skin redness and flaking.

 

Prohibited chemicals Note
Mercury It is usually included in whitening creams as well as other cosmetic products illegally.
Hydroquinone
Betamethasone valerate
Tretinoin Acne cream

Medicines and Cosmetics

 

Definition of medicines
Chemicals used to help with the treatment or prevention of diseases
 
  • Medicines can be classified into traditional medicines and modern medicines.
  • Medicines are safe if taken properly.
  • Generally, medicines are for health use, but misuse or abuse of them can be harmful.
 

Traditional medicines

 
  • Obtained from herbal plants or animals and are not chemically processed.
  • Usually prepared by crushing certain parts of the plants using pestle and mortar and rubbing on sore limbs.
  • There are also certain parts of the plants or animals that are boiled to get the essence and to be consumed orally.
  • Nowadays, traditional medicines have evolved through processing, and marketed in the form of pills or capsules.
 
Definition of traditional medicines
Medicines obtained from plants and animals and are not chemically processed

 

Source of traditional medicine

Function

Ginseng root

Improves health

Tamarind

The juice from its fruit can relieve cough

Garlic

Lessen infection and high blood pressure

Cloves

Relieves toothache

Sirih leaves

Relieves eyesore

Turmeric

Decreases pimples

Papaya tree

The juice can relieve skin irritation

Hibiscus tree

The leaves can relieve headache and decreases hair loss

Coconut tree

The coconut water can reduce fever

Aloe vera

The juice can reduce the pain from burned skin

 

Modern medicines

 
  • Rapid developments in the field of medicine through new technologies, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering, have boost the production of modern medicine in the pharmaceutical industry.
  • Most modern medicines produced today come from plants, microorganisms or synthetic chemicals.
  • Modern medicines are available in various forms, such as pills, capsules, powders and liquids.
 
Definition of modern medicines
Medicines manufactured industrially and distributed to consumers in this age
 

Types Modern medicines

 
Example Function
Analgesics
Aspirin and paracetamol Relieves pain in conscious state
Codeine Relieves pain, alleviates coughs and treats diarrhoea
Antimicrobials
Antibiotics Kills or retard bacterial growth
Antiseptics Applied externally on the skin to kill or stop the growth of microbes on the skin and mucous membranes
Disinfectants Destroys pathogens found on non-living objects
Psychotic drugs
  • Haloperidol
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Clozapine
Treatment for psychosis, a symptom of mental illness that causes patients to see, hear and believe something that is not real
Anti allergies
Antihistamines To relieve runny nose and itchiness
Corticosteroids
  • Betamethasone valerate
  • Prednisolone
  • Provide relief to the inflamed area.
  • Reduce swelling, redness, itchiness, allergic reactions, asthma and arthritis.

 

The side effect of medicines

Type of medicine

Example

Side effect

Antibiotic

Penicillin

  • Some might be allergic to penicillin.
  • Symptoms; itchiness, shortness of breath

Analgesic

Aspirin

  • Skin rash
  • Unconsciousness

Antipsychotic

Stimulant

  • Addiction
  • Abuse of amphetamine

Antipsychotic

  • Addiction

 

 

Cosmetic Substances

 

 

 
  • Cosmetics are substances or products used externally for cleaning, protect or beautify one's appearance.
  • Various types of materials are used as ingredients in the production of cosmetics so that the desired effect is obtained.
  • The basic ingredients for cosmetics usually consist of a combination of ingredients such as water, emulsifiers, thickeners, dyes, moisturizers and preservatives.
 
Cosmetic Basics Ingredients
Dye Gives colour to make cosmetics more attractive. Example: Iron (III) oxide.
Preservatives Prevent cosmetic damage. Examples: Parabens and formaldehyde.
Moisturizer Maintains the moisture of cosmetic ingredients. Examples: Glycerin and sodium lactate.
Fragrances Gives a pleasant aroma to cosmetic products. Example: Essential oils.
Thickener Thickens cosmetic products. Examples: Glycerin and xanthan gum.
Emulsifier Forms a homogeneous mixture between water and oil. Examples: Lecithin and stearic acid.
Water Solvents in the production of cosmetics.
 
  • The production and sale of cosmetics in Malaysia are subjected to the Drugs and Cosmetics Control Regulations 1984 to ensure the safety of all consumers.
 
Types of Cosmetics
Makeup cosmetics Used to beautify the face: Powder, lipstick, pencil eyebrows, blush, eye shadow, eyeliner and mascara
Cosmetic care Treatment on the body: Creams, skin moisturizers and face mask
Fragrances Fragrances: Deodorants and perfumes.
 
The Use of Cosmetics in Life
 
Pros of Homemade Cosmetics
  • Easily produced using natural ingredients
  • Safe and no harmful chemicals
  • Cheap cost

 

Cons of Commercial Cosmetics
  • Harmful side effects
  • There are hazardous chemicals included illegally
  • Excessively highlighted and misleading advertisement
 
Side effects of the use of banned chemicals in cosmetics
 
Prohibited chemicals Side effects
Mercury Skin irritation as well as fruit damage waist and nervous system if absorbed into the bloodstream
Hydroquinone Skin becomes hypersensitive and pigmentation reduction resulting in skin exposure to harmful UV rays
Betamethasone valerate Skin irritation and changes in skin pigmentation.
Tretinoin Skin redness and flaking.

 

Prohibited chemicals Note
Mercury It is usually included in whitening creams as well as other cosmetic products illegally.
Hydroquinone
Betamethasone valerate
Tretinoin Acne cream