## Isotopes and Their Uses

 2.4 Isotopes and Their Uses

 Definition of Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.

 IsotopE Number of Proton Number of Nucleon Hydrogen Hydrogen 1 1 Deuterium 1 2 Tritium 1 3 Oxygen Oxygen-16 8 16 Oxygen-17 8 17 Oxygen-18 8 18 Carbon Carbon-12 6 12 Carbon-13 6 13 Carbon-14 6 14

Relative Atomic Mass of Isotopes
 Definition of Natural Abundance
• The percentage of isotopes present in a natural sample of an element.
 Formula for Relative Atomic Mass

$$\text{Relative atomic mass}= \dfrac{\Sigma(\% \text{Isotope } \times \text{Mass of isotope})}{100}$$

 Field Isotopes Uses Medicine Cobalt-60 In radiotherapy to kill cancer cells without surgery Iodine-131 Treatment of thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer Agriculture Phosphorus-32 Study of plant metabolism Nuclear Uranium-235 Generating electricity through nuclear power generator Archaeology Carbon-14 Estimation of artifacts or fossils’ age Lead-210 In determining the age of sand and earth layers up to 80 years Industry Hydrogen-3 As a detector to study sewage and liquid wastes Engineering Sodium-24 In detecting leakage in underground pipes

## Isotopes and Their Uses

 2.4 Isotopes and Their Uses

 Definition of Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.

 IsotopE Number of Proton Number of Nucleon Hydrogen Hydrogen 1 1 Deuterium 1 2 Tritium 1 3 Oxygen Oxygen-16 8 16 Oxygen-17 8 17 Oxygen-18 8 18 Carbon Carbon-12 6 12 Carbon-13 6 13 Carbon-14 6 14

Relative Atomic Mass of Isotopes
 Definition of Natural Abundance
• The percentage of isotopes present in a natural sample of an element.
 Formula for Relative Atomic Mass

$$\text{Relative atomic mass}= \dfrac{\Sigma(\% \text{Isotope } \times \text{Mass of isotope})}{100}$$

 Field Isotopes Uses Medicine Cobalt-60 In radiotherapy to kill cancer cells without surgery Iodine-131 Treatment of thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer Agriculture Phosphorus-32 Study of plant metabolism Nuclear Uranium-235 Generating electricity through nuclear power generator Archaeology Carbon-14 Estimation of artifacts or fossils’ age Lead-210 In determining the age of sand and earth layers up to 80 years Industry Hydrogen-3 As a detector to study sewage and liquid wastes Engineering Sodium-24 In detecting leakage in underground pipes