In this topic, you will be exposed to the words and phrases commonly used in each theme. 
18.1  Society
  • Antisocial
    • (against society) is often used in colloquial speech to mean unfriendly or not sociable (asocial). 
    • In scientific use, antisocial refers more specifically to a harmful or hostile person to others or society in general.
  • Social exclusion
    • Relates to the alienation 
    • or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. 
    • It is often connected to a person's social class, educational status, relationships in childhood and living standards and how these might affect access to various opportunities. 
    • It also applies to people with a disabilityminority men and women of all races, the elderly, and youth (Youth Exclusion). 
    • Anyone who deviates in any perceived way from the norm of a population may become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion.
  • Social class
    • Refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. 
    • People may be part of lowermiddle or higher classes
  • Minority
    • minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society. 
    • A minority group can be defined as: "a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination."
  • Social solidarity
    • Refers to the integration, and degree and type of integration, shown by a society or group.
  • Multicultural Society
    • A society in which there is cultural diversity. 
  • Voluntary work
    • Volunteers do voluntary work for the benefit of a community or society. 
    • volunteer works for a community or the benefit of the environment primarily because they choose to do so. 
    • Volunteers do not normally get paid.
  • Homelessness
    • Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford, or are otherwise unable to maintain, regular, safe, and adequate shelter.
    • People who are part of this social category are called homeless people. 
  • Poverty
    • Poverty is the deprivation of common necessities such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine our quality of life.
    • It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment, which aid the escape from poverty and/or allow one to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens.
  • Citizenship
    • Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation.
    • A person having such membership is a citizen.
  •  Gender Roles
    • gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioural norms associated with males or females in a given social group or system.
    • It can be a form of division of labour by gender.
  • Domestic violence
    • Domestic violence (also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse) occurs when a family member, partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate another.
    • Domestic violence often refers to violence between spouses or spousal abuse and includes cohabitants and non-married intimate partners.
18.2  Youth
  • Adolescence
    • The period of time in a person's life when they are developing into an adult
  • Delinquent
    • delinquent fails to do that which is required by law or by duty when such failure is minor in nature.
    • The term is often used to refer to a juvenile who commits a minor criminal act - juvenile delinquents.
  • Generation gap
    • generation gap is a popular term used to describe big differences between people of a younger generation and their elders.
    • This can be defined as occurring "when older and younger people do not understand each other because of their different experiences, opinions, habits and behaviour. 
    • "Most misunderstandings that occur between parents and children are due to generation gap." 
  • Juvenile violence / crime / delinquency
    • Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles.
    • " There is a high rate of juvenile delinquency in this area."
  • Youth
    • The period of your life when you are young, or the state of being young
18.3  Emotions
  • Happiness
    • Jubilant, contentment, elation, euphoric, delighted, joyful, gleeful, mirthful, 
  • Sadness
    • Unhappy, feel low, feel blue, downhearted
  • Anger
    • Angry, cross, upset, irritated, mad, vexed, annoyed, furious, irate, indignant, seething.
18.4  Culture
  • Culturally acceptable
    • It isn't culturally acceptable in some countries to blow your nose in public places. 
  • Cultural conflicts
    • We should try hard to avoid cultural conflicts as they are a result of a misunderstanding.
  • Cultural stereotypes
    • People have a fixed idea about what someone or something is like, especially an idea that is wrong.
    • Cultural stereotypes make our understanding of other cultures difficult. 
  • Cultural diversity
    • The fact or quality of cultures of being diverse or different.
    • Cultural diversity should be considered as a source of enrichment rather than a source of conflicts.
  • Cultural uniqueness
    • Culture/customs make a country distinctive/different from other countries.
  • Cultural misconceptions
    • Mistaken thoughts, ideas, or notions; misunderstandings about a culture.
    • These are false ideas about a culture resulting from misunderstanding rather than from reality.
  • Cultural shock
    • A condition of confusion and anxiety affecting a person suddenly exposed to an alien culture or milieu.
    • "The first time she went to Japan, Isabel got a huge culture shock."
  • Racial behaviour
    • Behaviour resulting from a belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others (racism or racialism.)
    • " We may limit the danger of racial behaviour if there is a mutual understanding of different cultures."
  • Stereotype
    • A generalized perception of first impressions. 
    • Can instigate prejudice and false assumptions about entire groups of people, including different ethnic groups, social classes, religious orders, the opposite sex, etc.
    • stereotype can be a conventional and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image, based on the assumption that there are attributes that members of the "other group" have in common.
18.5  Environment
  • Climate change
    • There has been a growing concern about climate change. 
  • Deforestation
    • The cutting down of trees in a large area; the destruction of forests by people.
    • Deforestation is destroying large areas of the tropical rainforest.
  • Desertification
    • The process by which land changes into a desert. 
  • Disposable products 
    • Describes an item that is intended to be thrown away after use.
  • Sustainable development
    • A development that is causing little or no damage to the environment can continue for a long time.
18.6  Health and Welfare

1. How to say you are ill 

  • I'm ill.
  • I feel really rough. 
  • I'm shattered (meaning tired out or exhausted)
  • I'm on my last legs (to be very tired, especially after a lot of physical activity or work. It also means going to die soon - 'the old man is on his last leg'). 
  • I feel / look poorly / peaky / rough / bloody awful
  • I feel/look like death warmed up (very ill or appearing very sickly - Poor thing! She looks like death warmed up)

2. How to say you are feeling OK 

  • I am alive and kicking (to continue to be well, healthy or successful - Don't worry about your grandfather; he is alive and kicking)
  • I feel good (used to talk about the emotional state) 
  • feel great/well 
  • He is a picture of (good) health (to be in a very healthy condition - The doctor told him that he is a picture of good health)
  • She is hale and hearty (to be in good health - Despite her old age, she looks hale and hearty)

3. Medicines 

  • eye drops
  • cream
  • syringe
  • syrup 
  • bandage
  • dose (of medicine)
  • drugs
  • shot/injection (give some an injection)
  • medicine (take medicine)
  • pain-killer
  • pill
  • plaster
  • tablet
  • tranquillizer
18.7  Synonyms

big = large

blank = empty

broad = wide

cunning = clever

dangerous = risky

eatable = edible 

gay = cheerful

huge = enormous

clever = intelligent

loving = fond

lazy = indolent

noisy = rowdy

rare = scarce

old = ancient 

empty = vacant

weak = feeble

18.8  Compound Adjectives

Compound adjectives can be formed as follow:

  • Adverb-past participle / noun + ed
    a well-known writer
    brightly-lit room
    deeply-rooted traditions
    well-mannered girl
  • Adjective-present participle (verb + ing) 
    good-looking boy
    a free-standing tower 
  • Noun-past participle 
    tongue-tied boy
    sun-dried fruit
  • Adjective-past participle / noun + ed
    short-sighted man
    long-haired lady 
  • Noun- adjective
    world-famous singer
  • Adjective- noun
    last-minute solution
    deep-sea diving
  • Noun-noun 
    a part-time job