Adaptation of Plants to Different Habitats

 
We will learn about the adaptations of plants
 
7.1 Adaptations of Plants
 

Types of plants habitats:

  • Halophytes
  • Hydrophytes
  • Xerophytes
  • Mesophytes
 
 
Examples of plants based on different habitats:
 
Mesophyte
 
  • Helianthus sp. (Sunflower)
  • Zea mays (Maize)
  • Musa sp. (Banana)
  • Durio sp. (Durian)
 
Hydrophyte
 
  • Submerged plants:
    • Hydrilla sp.
    • Elodea sp.
    • Uticularia sp.
  • Floating plants:
    • Nelumbium sp. (teratai)
    • Eichhornia sp. (keladi bunting)
    • Platia sp. (selada air)
    • Lemma sp. (kambang)
 
Halophyte
 
  • Avicennia sp.
  • Sonneratia sp.
  • Rhizophora sp.
  • Brugeria sp.
  • Pandanus sp.
  • Nyla sp.
 
Xerophyte
 
  • Cactus
  • Pineapple
  • Pine trees
 
 
 

Characteristics of different habitats:

 
Types of plants based on habitat Chracteristics of habitat
Mesophyte
  • Optimum temperature
  • Sufficient water supply
  • Optimum air humidity
  • Appropriate soil texture
Hydrophyte
  • High temperature at water surface
  • Sufficient water supply
  • High air humidity
  • Muddy soil
Halophyte
  • High temperature
  • Insufficient of fresh water supply
  • Concentration of mineral salts in water is higher and changes
  • High air humidity
  • Sandy soil
Xerophyte
  • High temperature
  • Lack of water supply
  • Very low air humidity
  • Dry soil
 

Adaptive features of plants based on different habitats:

 
  • Hydrophyte
 
Adaptive features Explanation

Leaf

  • Cuticle is absent in leaves of submerged plants
  • Stomata are absent in leaves of submerged plants
  • Stomata are only present on upper epidermis of leaves in floating plants
  • The upper leaf surface in floating leaves are coated with waxy cuticle
  • Submerged plants have no stomata
  • Gaseous exchange for submerged plants is through diffusion of gases in water

Stem

  • Presence of aerenchyma tissue to have air spaces
  • Vascular tissues are poor developed
  • To float plants
  • To absorb water and minerals by osmosis

Root

  • Roots are poorly developed
  • Roots that anchor the soil is not necessary

Reproduction

  • Reproduction is mainly by asexual methods
  • The flowers and seeds are less abundant
  • Pollination seldom or unavailable under water
 
  • Halophyte
 
Adaptive features Explaination

Leaf

  • Thick cuticle is present in the epidermal layer
  • Sunken stomata are present
  • Leaves are succulent
  • Salt glands are present on the leaf margin
  • To conserve water
  • To store water
  • To remove excess salt from plants

Stem

  • Stems are hard woody and covered with thick bark
  • Vascular tissues are well developed
  • For support
  • To transport water and minerals

Root

  • The roott systems are well developed with prop roots,cable roots,buttress roots or pneumatophores
  • To anchor muudy soil firmly
  • For gases exchange

Reproduction

  • Viviparous seeds
  • Enable seedlings to be survived
 
  • Xerophyte
 
Adaptive features Explanation

Leaf

  • Thick cuticle is present in the epidermal layer
  • Sunken stomata are present
  • Leaves are succulent or rolled
  • The stoma open during night-time and remain close during day-time
  • Leaves are reduced in size or needle-like
  • To conserve water 
  • To store water

Stem

  • Stems are succulent or woody and covered with thick bark
  • Vascular tissues are well developed
  • To store water
  • To transport water effectively

Root

  • The root systems are well developed,elongated with root hairs
  • To absorbs and pending sources of water and mineral salts

Reproduction

  • Sexual and asexual reproduction
  • To increase the survival of species